Our market

Metals usage summary

  Platinum   Palladium   Rhodium    Ruthenium   Iridium  
Automotive   Catalyst to control exhaust emissions
Spark plug tips
Oxygen sensors in vehicle on-board diagnostic systems   
Catalyst to control exhaust emissions (particularly hydrocarbon control)
Oxygen sensors in vehicle on-board diagnostic systems   
Catalyst to control exhaust emissions (essential for NOx control)  –   Alloying agent in spark plug tips  
Chemical   Gauze for catalytic production of nitric acid Process catalyst for producing bulk (PTA) and speciality chemicals (eg silicones)  Catchment gauze to recover platinum and rhodium in nitric acid production Process catalysts   Process catalysts,
eg acetic acid, oxo alcohols and rubber products Alloy with platinum in nitric acid production
Process catalysts, eg production of ammonia (Kellogg process)  Process catalysts, eg production of acetic acid (Cativa process) 
Dental   Hardener in dental alloys   Alloying agent   –   Alloying agent   –  
Electro-
chemical
–   –   –   Coating for anodes in chlorine and caustic soda production
Sodium chlorate production
Coating for anodes in chlorine and caustic soda production
Sodium chlorate production
Coating for electrode – for electro-galvanising of steel strip
Electronics    Alloy coating for hard disks to improve storage capacity
Thermocouples to monitor temperature in steel, semi-conductor and glass industries
Conductive paste in multi-layer ceramic chip capacitators
Conductive tracks of hybrid integrated circuits
Salts for plating processes
Alloyed with platinum in thermocouples Resistor pastes for hybrid integrated circuits and chip resistors
PMR technology to increase hard disk memory storage
Fabrication of crucibles for growing rare earth and other crystals (lasers and memory chips)
Thermocouples
Glass    Production of LCD glass
Bushings for producing glass fibre
Speciality glasses
Glass for TVs, monitor and cathode ray tubes
Glass substrates for hard disks
–   Alloyed with platinum in producing LCD glass
Alloyed with platinum in bushings
–   –  
Investment Small/large bars, coins
ETFs   
Coins
ETFs  
–   –   –  
Jewellery    Fabrication   Fabrication
Alloying agent in platinum jewellery
Whitening agent in production of white gold
Electroplating to give jewellery white finish Alloying agent in platinum jewellery Alloying agent in platinum jewellery
Petroleum   Reforming and isomerisation for upgrading octane quality    Hydrocracking to achieve higher yields    –   –   Alloyed with platinum in reforming catalysts   
Other   Anti-cancer drugs
Protective coating on turbine blades
Pacemakers and catheters
Control of industrial emissions (volatile organic compounds)
Magnets
Control of industrial emissions (volatile organic compounds)    –   –   Alloyed with platinum in pacemakers and catheters   
Fuel cells    Electrode coating in fuel cell stack
Fuel-processing catalyst
Tailgas burner
Tailgas burner Fuel-processing catalyst Electrode coating in fuel cell stack